Brahmaputra River, Journey of Atish Dipankar
The Tsangpo, The Brahmaputra, The Jamuna: one river, three names. Tibet, India, Bangladesh: one river, three countries. Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam:one river, three faiths. This is a story of an epic journey to the mythological source of Asia's greatest river, a source hidden among the ice sheets of one of the most sacred regions in the world. Legends are born here.
Some sixty miles south east of the holy Kailash mountain and the sacred Manasarovar lake, the Brahmaputra begins as a small, glacial trickle in the mountains of Western Tibet before sweeping 1800 tortuous miles down to the Bay of Bengal and the warming seas of the Indian Ocean. This mighty river forces itself through some of the most inhospitable regions on earth and, like a Hindu deity, the river has many incarnations, changing its name, its shape and nature in relation to the myriad cultures and landscapes of Tibet, China, India and Bangladesh.
The highest river in the world, it flows at an average elevation of 4000 metres above sea level. From its source, the Brahmaputra runs for hundreds of miles in an easterly direction between the main ranges of the Himalayas. Throughout its upper course the river is known as the Tsangpo "The Purifier". But after passing Pei in Tibet, it is blocked by the towering snow capped Namche Bawar and the river suddenly turns to the north and northeast and cuts a course through a succession of great, narrow gorges in a series of rapids and huge cascades. Between towering peaks, the river plunges with unimaginable force to descend a phenomenal a 3050 metres.
The Jamuna is the main flow of the famous Brahmaputra, which begins at a great glacier mass in the Kailash Range south of Gunkyud Lake in southern Tibet at an elevation of 5,300m from where it flows through China, India, and Bangladesh for 2,880km before reaching the Bay of Bengal through a joint channel with the Ganges, known as Padma in Bangladesh. A few hundred years ago, the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh had a different course. It entered the country near Bahadurabad in Jamalpur and merged with the Meghna at Bhairab going through Sherpur. It shifted to the present course following an earthquake in 1777.
Brahmaputra River Story & Trivia
The Tibetans believe that long before human occupation, the Chang Tan plateau was covered by the waters of a great lake. A Bodhisattva (an enlightened being) decided the waters had to flow to help people who occupy the region. So he cut an outlet through the Himalayas for the Tsangpo or ‘Great River’.
The mountains, gorges and jungles through which the Tsangpo flows in Tibet are considered extremely holy. Ancient Tibetan scrolls written by sages, speaks of sanctuaries or beyuls deep in the Himalayas. Here ageing is slowed down and, animals and plants have miraculous powers. The Tibetans believe that in this area, perhaps through one of the waterfalls at the bottom of the world’s deepest gorge, is the doorway to paradise on Earth, Shangri-la.
Son of BrahmaIn mythological times, Amogha wife of Sage Shantanu had a child by Brahma the creator of the Universe. The child took the form of water. Shantanu placed the child right in the middle of the four great mountains – Kailash, Gandhamadana, Jarudhi and Sambwartakka. He grew into a great lake, the Brahmakunda.
Parashurama an incarnation of Lord Vishnu had committed the terrible sin of killing his own mother because his father had ordered him to. So great was the sin that the axe he used got stuck in his hand! The sages advised Parashurama to visit holy places. At Brahmakunda he axed down one side of the mountains, releasing the waters to help the locals. This got the name Brahmaputra or Son of Brahma. To Parashurama’s great relief, the axe came lose and the blood from the axe got washed off, leaving a reddish tinge in the river. Hence the name Luit in Assamese (from the Sanskrit word for blood)
It is also called Burha Luit, perhaps because ‘Burha’ meaning old locally represents the ancientness of the river. Another legend goes on to add that Parashurama used a plough to further furrow the soft soil to make a path for the waters to flow to the plains. Tired he stopped at a place near Sonargaon. Here his plough or ‘Langal’ came to a standstill or ‘bandh’, and this place got called Langalbandh. This is considered to be a very holy place to round of a pilgrimage with a dip in the Brahmaputra..
Fortified by tributaries in calmer lands, the river turns south and southwest leaving the eastern extremities of the Himalayas before entering the Assam Valley of northeastern India. Here it changes its name to the Dihang. Then, just west of the town of Sadiya in India, 900 miles from the Bay of Bengal, it is reborn as the Brahmaputra - the "Son of Brahma".
By now this is truly a river of epic scale, its banks, even in the dry season, more than five miles apart. The Brahmaputra first enters the plains of Bangladesh after turning south around the Garo Hills, just across the border in India. Then once again, it mutates to become the vast, slow-moving Jamuna, following a flatland course for more than 150 miles. Finally, tired and heavy-laden with the silts of many lands, this extraordinary river enters the Meghna estuary and is swallowed up by churning seas of the Bay of Bengal.
The Brahmaputra is a river of timeless, mythical proportions. This is a journey through time, a journey that explores the dynamics of river, itself an enduring legend - and the people who live along its diverse shores. The journey is both geographical and spiritual - from the Bay of Bengal to the source, from Islam through Hinduism and Animism to Buddhism. It is also a journey through the maze of cultures that sit outside the mass religious and cultural practices of South Asia. It is the story of the people, cultures and customs of a river that is older than the Himalayas, older than time itself.
For Bangladeshis the river is alive. A life-giver through its offerings, and death itself in fury. At its widest, the banks are separated by miles. Near the Bay of Bengal, the trawlers ply, bringing in harvest from the sea, while upstream the smaller boats also ferry people, and cargo, and collect sand from the river-beds. With changing economic systems, the fishermen who have fished in the river all their lives, find themselves outlawed as fishing rights are purchased by wealthy businessmen in cities, on waters they have always called their own. Ingenious methods include herding them in to the 'flower' of nets cast in perfect synchrony.
Dipankar Srijnan, Atish (980-1053) Buddhist scholar, religious preceptor and philosopher, Atisha Dipankar Srijnan has been venerated for nearly 1000 years as an outstanding religious personality in Tibet and Asia countries north of the Himalayas. But the great saint-philosopher of 10th-11th Century was forgotten for centuries in a peculiar twist of history in the land of his birth in Bangladesh as well as in Indian sub-continent till the end of 19th Century.
Scholars in their quest for Bengal's ancient history and heritage as well as its age-old cultural and religious link with Tibet have resurrected an almost forgotten chapter of history of Buddhism. In the last decade of the 19th Century the name of Atisha Dipankar Srijnan as one of the greatest sons of the Bengal and an outstanding religious personality of India was discovered from the rather rusted records of history inscribed in Tibetan Tanjur. A scholar-diplomat Sarat Chandra Das (1849-1917; born in Chittagong, Bangladesh) had visited the forbidden land of Tibet several times in the latter part of the 19th Century as an envoy of the then colonial British Empire. A fearless explorer, he was fascinated by glimpses into Tibetan religion and culture and risked his life several times as a political suspect in the eyes of the Tibetan ruler while he was visiting remote monasteries and gumpas in rather inaccessible regions to collect materials buried in ancient manuscripts.
When Dipankar dominated the religious scene in the 11th Century, the Buddhist Pala Dynasty was reigning in full glory. The adjoining Magadha kingdom along with eastern India came under the magnetic spell of Buddhism. He was Principal of the Vikramshila Vihara founded by great Pala King Dharmapala in 8th Century. About 8000 students studied in this University under 108 professors who were eminent scholars under the preceptorship of Dipankar Srijnan. The courses of studies included Therevada and Mahayana Buddhism, social sciences, Veda, Vedanta, Upanishad, philosophy, Logic, medicine, science, astronomy etc. Students from all parts of India as well as from China, Tibet, Ujjaini, Turkestan and Nepal came to study in this University. At that time Nalanda was in a declining stage.
His journey on foot to Tibet across the snowy mountainous terrains of the Himalayas amidst hazards makes an exciting story. His biographer gave a vivid description of the journey and entrance to Western Tibet. The main rout was from Palpa in Nepal to Manassarover (Manas Lake). Through a lot of Hazards including attack by dacoits, he reached Western Tibet in 1042 AD. The Prime Minister of Tibet gave him a rousing reception along with a large number of followers on his entrance to Tibet. In his welcoming words, the Prime Minister said: "You are the wisest and most meritorious savant. You have come from the land of Acharyas in the incarnation of divinity in response to the prayers of the people of Tibet. In this age, you are the representative of Lord Buddha and paragon of Buddhism. All living beings and gods worship you for your purity."
It is a fact that Buddhism is the original religion of Bangladesh for more than 2000 years and has made deep impact on Bengali life culture and civilisation through centuries.
Dhaka, Bangladesh -- Did Lord Buddha visit Bengal during his life-time while he was preaching the Dhamma walking long distances on foot in Magadha (present-day Bihar state of India), Uttar Pradesh and his birth place Kapilavastu in Nepal? Legends and a latter-day Buddhist treatise named 'Bodhisattva Avadan Kalpalata' suggest that Buddha visited ancient Bengal probably along the river route of the Ganges. Historians, however, do not find authentic proof to support the view of his visit to this region. In any case Buddhism reached ancient Bangladesh shortly after his passing away.
Asoka's consecration to the throne took place 218 years after Buddha's passing away. Chinese pilgrim Fa Hien (359-415) during his visit to India in the Fifth Century came to ancient Bengal and found Buddhism in a flourishing condition through impact of Asoka's religious expedition. In the Seventh Century, the most outstanding traveller-pilgrim Hieun Tsang toured India for 16 years from 629 to 645 AD. While touring ancient Bengal he noted that Buddhism existed in Northern Bangladesh, Pundravardan and Mahastan, the first city of this ancient land. He visited Samatata region in 639 AD in present-day Comilla and recorded in his travel diary as having seen 30 Sangharams or monasteries here inhabited by 2000 monks of Thervada school. In fact Buddhism is the original religion of Bangladesh for more than 2000 years and made deep impact on Bengali life, culture and civilisation through centuries in the midst of rise and fall of dynasties and kingdoms. Names of two devotees from Bengal, Dharmadatta and Rishinandan of Pundravardhan are inscribed in the entrance gate of Sanchi Stupa, constructed during Emperor Asoka's reign. The name 'Banga' appears in the stone inscription of Nagarjunikonda dated Fourth Century BC.
From the Fourth Century AD the Gupta kings of ancient Bengal who professed Hinduism and the Vaisnava cult showed exemplary tolerance to Buddhism. Fa Hien in his travel diary during Gupta rule wrote that Buddhism and Hinduism coexisted in an atmosphere of peace and tolerance. The Gupta period was marked in ancient Bengal's history for remarkable excellence in religion, philosophy, literature, poetry, sculpture and paintings.
In the Seventh Century, Bhikkhu Shilabhadra, born in present-day Comilla was the most outstanding monk who became the Principal of then the biggest University of world, Nalanda. Hieun Tsang studied Yogashastra under him for two years and paid glowing tributes to his Master as the most profound scholar and philosopher of ancient India. Acharya Chandragomin of this period was known as an outstanding grammarian who wrote grammar deviating from the traditional Sanskrit vocabulary of Panini.
The Seventh Century in ancient Bangladesh was marked by total social anarchy, lawlessness and feuds among sections of people. This period continuing for more than half a century is described as 'Matsyanyaya' which means big fishes eating small fishes, implying oppression of the weak by the strong. Under the circumstances, the people elected a local chieftain named Gopala as their King in Eighth Century to bring about order and discipline in the society. Gopala is the founder of the Pala Dynasty who professed Buddhism and created a new social order based on justice and equality among all people. Nearly 400 years of the Pala Rule (850-1250) witnessed the birth of a new civilisation.
The First King of the Pala Dynasty, Gopala established Buddhist monasteries in different parts of the country. Famous Buddhist Philosopher Acharya Santarakhshit visited Tibet and stayed there till 762 AD for reformation and regeneration of Buddhism. He is known as 'Pandita Bodhisattva' in Tibet. The Second Pala Emperor, Dharmapala was the founder of our 'Prajnaparamita Sutra' of Buddhism. He constructed 50 monasteries and founded the famous Vikramshila Vihara and Sompuri Vihara.
Buddhism created a rich culture and civilisation in ancient Bangladesh from Eighth to Thirteenth Centuries. The compassionate teachings of the Buddha swept away discrimination among men in the society and generated a new spirit of equality, fraternity and humanism. During the Pala age there was a movement against caste discrimination. Poet Sarahapad composed songs and poems against the futility of caste system. Quoting Gautama Buddha's teachings, a poem said : 'If among the Brahmins, some engaged themselves in education and learning and led pure lives and if some others remain engaged in killing and theft, will the two types of Brahmins be placed in the same category?'
Buddhism emerged as the dominant religion of the masses and exercised profound influence on the social, cultural and intellectual lives of the people. During this period big monasteries like Vikramshila, Somapuri, Agrapuri, Kanakastupa, Jagaddala, Odantapuri etc flourished as centres of learning on Buddhism as well as secular arts and sciences. The most significant of these monasteries was Sompuri Vihara whose massive ruins had been unearthed at Paharpur of Rajshahi district in northern part of Bangladesh by British archeologists. Unique in ancient temple architecture, this Mahavihara developed during Pala Dynasty from the Eighth to Eleventh Centuries and is described as the biggest monument south of the Himalayas. The architecture of this Vihara has influenced the style of monasteries in South East Asia up to Indonesia where monumental Borobudhur Temple of Java has been modelled after it.
Archaeological excavations at Mainamati in the Comilla district led to the discovery of Salvana Vihara which constitutes the ruins of the historic Kanakastupa Vihara witnessed by Hieun Tsang.
One of the greatest centres of Buddhism in the sub-continent after the decline of Nalanda was Pandita Vihara located somewhere in Chittagong as the major establishment of the Tantric Mahayana school. Atish Dipankar Srijanan, the outstanding saint and philosopher and another scholar monk, Tilopa or Tilopad of Chittagong who had preached Buddhism in Bhutan studied in this Vihara.
Buddhist scholars and saints exercised their influence far beyond the frontiers of Bangladesh. Atish Dipankar Srijanan of Ten-Eleventh Century AD was one of the most outstanding saints and scholars of the sub-continent and Principal of a number of big monasteries including Vikramshila Vihara. He was born in Bajrayogini village of Vikrampur, not far from the city of Dhaka. He visited Tibet at the invitation of its King for revival of Buddhism and lived there for 13 years until his death at the age of 73.
He wrote more than 100 religious and philosophical books on Buddhism which are preserved in ancient temples of Tibet. He is still worshipped in Tibet, China, Mongolia and northern Asian countries as the incarnation of Lord Buddha.
The period of Buddhist rule in ancient Bangladesh was marked by remarkable development in the style of architecture, arts and sculpture. The massive monasteries in Paharpur, Mainamati and Mahastangarh were built in Bengal style of architecture. Terracotta pieces in the walls exemplify development of secular arts reflecting life, nature and social scene of those days.
The Oldest University in Asia, Terra Cotta Remains
The Pala Kings, who ruled Bengal in the 5th century were Buddhists Many Buddhists Vihara well as other subjects. Since the Buddhists wanted to live in peace and had respect for other religions convinced the Pala emperor Dharmapala to convert himself to Buddhism from Jaina fath. Intermingling of the Hindu, Jaina and Buddhist faiths are evident in the arts and sculptures recovered from the site of this Vihara.
At Paharpur some terra-cotta seals bearing the name of the vice chancellor, Sri Somepure, a member of the second ruler of the Pala dynasty, of the oldest university in Asia named as "Somapura Buddha Vihara Viswabidyalaya" (Khatun, 1997). The University used to teach theology, grammar, logic, philosophy, fine arts and visited by famous scholars. The residential university enrolled students free of costs and their clothing and food were also free. About one hundred adjacent villages supplied food and clothing for about 2,000 students living in 177 rooms in a 21 acre fortified complex area. Students from south-east Asian countries like Korea, Mongolia, China and Tibet came here to receive the superior quality of education provided by this University. The books preserved in the library were made of parchment paper and palm leaves. But the library was looted and ravaged after the fall of the Pala dynasty (M. Khatun, 1997).
Paharpur Buddhist Monastery (Sompur Bihar) facing ruination
The ancient Paharpur Buddhist Monastery (Sompur Bihar) in Naogaon is in a sorry state. A huge number of terracotta plaques have been stolen from the walls of its temple before and after the declaration of the monastery and its adjacent areas as a World Heritage Site in 1984. A high official of the archeology department said, the famous monastery was facing ruination for lack of proper maintenance and supervision. He lamented that a good number of antiquities were earlier destroyed during excavation work at the site between 1923 and 1934.
Though the department collected some antiquities, it is high time to resist their theft and destruction, he said. Another senior official of the department said that a significant number of antiquities and terracotta went 'missing' between 1990 and 1995. A gang of 'antique lifters' is active in the area, he said. Citing poor security, he said, just a few months ago some miscreants broke open a portion of the iron grills of the temple's boundary wall. "We could not even maintain the sanctity of the World Heritage Site," he said, pointing to the setting up of a cell phone tower in front of the monastery which blocked the natural beauty of the spot. "We reported the matter to the authorities, but to no effect."
The excavated remains at Paharpur represent the largest known Buddhist monastery south of the Himalayas. The gradual deposition of wind-borne dust over the ruins for ages took the shape of a high mound or a hill. Hence the name of the place has probably became Paharpur. Excavations conducted there from 1923 to 1934 yielded a huge number of antiquities including one inscribed copper-plate of Gupta (479 AD), stone inscriptions, stone and bronze sculptures, terracotta plaques, inscribed clay sealings, ornamental bricks, metal objects, different earthen objects and silver coins.
From the reading of a number of inscribed clay sealings, it is learnt that original name of this monastery was Somapura Mahavihara (great monastery) and it was built by Dharmapala (770-810 AD), the 2nd Pala emperor. In 1982 and later, deep digging was conducted in some cells of Paharpur monastery. During digging, one terracotta image head, one copper coin and some other antiquities were found at lower occupation levels. These antiquities, particularly the terracotta image head resembles the features of Gupta sculptures.
Besides these antiquities, the ruins of a vast building having larger rooms (each 16'x13'-6? ) were brought to light. This building was known as the Jaina Vihara as mentioned in Paharpur copper plate. However, to ascertain the feature, further deep digging, investigation and study are necessary. Paharpur monastery measures 922 feet north-south by 919 feet east-west having its elaborate gateway in the middle of the northern wing. It has 177 cells in its four wings around an inner courtyard. The lofty temple in the middle of the courtyard; numerous votive stupas, miniature models of the central temple; chapels; small temples, kitchen and ancillary buildings are very beautiful.
The imposing central temple is cruciform in shape and built high in terraces. The outer faces of the walls of the temple are decorated by terracotta plaques. From the last quarter of 9th century onward the Pala Empire was repeatedly attacked by some foreign kings and one native Kaivarta chief named Divya. Because of repeated attacks Somapura Mahavihara suffered greatly. About the same time Paharpur monastery and temples were burnt by Bangla Army. In 12th century, Bengal was ruled by the Sena kings, who were blind supporters of Brahamanism. From that time on the Paharpur monastery and its temples were gradually abandoned for lack of Royal patronage. The monks and worshippers deserted Paharpur and went to other places (Hasibur Rahman Bilu, 2005) .
Atish Dipankar, the most famous bengali scholar, a thousand years ago, went from Bikrampur to Tibet, braving monsoon storms at the Jarlong Zhangpu crossing. Life on the river is changing. The sail boats that used to ply this mighty river are now rarely to be seen. The Bhatiali song is being replaced by the drone of the 'shallow' engine. Overfishing has reduced the harvest for the fisherman. But still, the river remains central to the Bangladeshi way of life, and Abbasuddin's songs still drift across the waves of the majestic Brahmaputra.
(980/82 AD) Scholars in their quest for Bengal's ancient history and heritage as well as its age-old cultural and religious link with Tibet have resurrected an almost forgotten chapter of history of Buddhism
Dipankar was born in a royal family of Guada in Vikramapur of Bengal which is east of Bajrasana. His father's name was Kalyansri and mother's name was Prabhavati. His birth place, Vajrayogini reminiscent of a 'Yogi with Vajra', a typical Buddhist name with Mahayana traditions still bears the same name across the long stretch of a thousand years despite many ups and downs in history.
Visiting the rather quiet dusty village, a few miles from the shore of mighty river Meghna flowing past Vikrampur, one comes across a mound with a sizable area identified to the generations of people as "Nastik Panditer Bhita" (meaning ancestral home of atheist scholar). People of successive generations particularly after decline of Buddhism in Bangladesh in 13th-14th Century may have forgotten Atisha Dipankar. Yet he had lived in public memory with veneration as a remote anonymous atheist scholar till his birth place was identified by scholars from the life of Atisha preserved in the collections of Tibetan writings.
Tibetan sources about Atisha collected during the last 100 years have brought out the highlights of his life and activities in India and Tibet.
In his early years, Chandragarbha renounced family ties and had his early education from contemporary celebrated Tantric teacher Jetari. Proving himself a brilliant disciple, Chandragarbha within a short time acquired knowledge in grammar, Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism as well as in some Tantric learning. He acquired proficiency in logic and philosophy and was able to defeat a well-known scholar of another religion in an open debate by strong arguments. Later he studied Tantricism and meditational science under Rahulagupta of Krishna Giri of South India who initiated him into the esoteric system and gave Chandragarbha the name "Guhyajnanavajra" which is evocative of secret Tantric rituals. At the age of 19, he was formally ordained as a monk under the preceptorship teacher of ancient Magadha and Mahasanghika Acharya of famous Odantapuri Vihara of India. During ordination, he was named Dipankar Srijnan. When Dipankar became 30 years old, he was fully ordained and given the Bodhisattva vows by Acharya Shilarakshita with adequate training in the metaphysical aspects of Buddhism. He also attained proficiency in Tripitaka, Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, Tantrayana and acquired thorough knowledge in logic and philosophy. In ancient time, knowledge was not compartmentalized as in the present-day age of specialization. Like Socrates, Aristotle, Plato and Ibne Sina of old days, Dipankar in the context of his own times pursued the totality of knowledge and sought to master not only all schools of its philosophical thoughts but also astronomy, logic, philosophy, literature and grammar. At 31, he is said to have acquired full mastery of three Pitakas. Yet he felt irresistable urge for further study of classical Buddhism. In 1012 AD. at the age of 32, he set out with a party of gem merchants
He was about 44 years old when he returned to India. He spent about 15 years in India preaching the Dhamma and holding very important responsibilities in a number of monasteries before his departure for Tibet. During the 15 years of his stay in India, Dipankar Srijnan devoted his energy in the dissemination of the Dhamma and knowledge in different monasteries such as Vajrasana, Somapuri, Nalanda, Odantapuri, Pandita and vikramshila Mahaviharas which had developed as seats of learning like Universities inhabited by thousands of monks and scholars for studies and research. Dipankar's dissemination of the Dhamma and scholastic teaching in a new dimension earned him the title "Dhammapala".
When Dipankar dominated the religious scene in the 11th Century, the Buddhist Pala Dynasty was reigning in full glory.
Atisha was elevated to the status of the second Buddha with his image worshiped in the high altar of the monasteries of Tibet and countries north of the Himalayas. A painting reportedly done by Atisha himself with the blood flowing out of his nostril and preserved in the Rs-Sgreb Monastery of Tibet shows him seated in a meditative posture holding a book in his left hand and gesticulating offer of protection in the right hand. His icons and paintings were executed by artistes hailing from Tibet where gods are always young. And it is thus no wonder that Atisha is represented in icons and images in Tibetan physiognomy though he was from Bangladesh of Indian Subcontinent, truly a Bengali born in the village Vajrajogini of Vikrampur region of Dhaka, not far from the capital city.
Atisha Dipankara described as the 'Eye of Asia' is a shining symbol of mankind's glorious heritage for peace, compassion, humanism and wisdom throughout the ages. His timeless message can inspire mankind in the work for peace, harmony and amity in a contemporary world heading towards the 21st century to liberate mankind from fears and dangers of war and mutual animosities as well as attainment of a harmonious world order.
He wrote books on Buddhist theology, medicine and engineering in Tibbetan language and was given the prestigious title, 'Atish'. He discovered many old Indian Puthi(poems) in Sanskrit in Tibbet. After making copy of those priceless books by himself, he sent them back to Bangala. He translated may Sanskrit books in Voot language. He also wrote 'Pradip Panjika', 'Budhipat Pradip', 'Ratna Karandowtghat', and letter to Emporer Neaye Pal, 'Bimal Rotno Lekh'. His original Sanskrit books are lost but the Tibbetean translation still exists.
There was a massive flood in Tibbet, and he spent all of the money he was given by the Tibbetans to construct protection in the river. While he was in India, he worked as a mediater to end confilct between Emperor Neaye Pal and King of Karna and bring peace in those regions.
He was worshiped as a prophet (Abotar) of Buddha in Tibbet. He lived there for 17 years and died at the age of 72. He is buried in Krethang, near capital Lama.
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